PURPOSE: This study investigates lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) and LDL-C goal attainment in a real-world, high-cardiovascular-risk population in the Netherlands. METHODS: From the PHARMO Database Network, patients aged >/=18 years with an LDL-C meaurement in 2012 (index date) were selected and hierarchically classified into the following mutually exclusive high-cardiovascular-risk categories: familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), coronary heart disease, ischemicstroke, peripheral arterial disease, and diabetes mellitus. LMT use and LDL-C goal attainment at the index date was assessed. FINDINGS: Of 61 839 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 1132 (2%) had FH, 2431 (4%) had recent ACS, 6292 (10%) had coronary heart disease, 2868 (5%) had ischemic stroke, 3017 (5%) had peripheral arterial disease, and 46 099 (75%) had diabetes mellitus. Overall, 67% of patients were receiving LMT. Use of LMT ranged from 77% for recent ACS to 53% for FH, and standard-potencystatins were the most prescribed. The percentage attaining an LDL-C goal of <100 mg/dL was 55%, ranging from 23% (FH) to 58% (recent ACS). Among LMT users, 69% taking high-potency statins, 70% taking standard-potency statins, and 20% receiving nonstatinLMTs attained an LDL-C goal of <100 mg/dL. IMPLICATIONS: LMT use among high-cardiovascular-risk patients was modest, which contributed to 46% of the cohort failing to reach LDL-C goals <100 mg/dL. Underuse and suboptimal use of LMTs in this cohort represent opportunities for quality improvement programs aimed at reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.