We pursued an association between hypertension and gliomas by investigating whether antihypertensive drugs (AHD) are associated with an increased glioma risk by a population-based nested case-control study using the PHARMO database; this links dispnsing records of prescription drugs to hospital discharge data on an individual basis. Pathological data were derived from the Dutch nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology. A total of 306 glioma cases incident between 1997 and 2003 were matchedto 1108 controls for year of birth, sex, geographical region and duration of follow-up. Exposure was defined as cumulative duration of AHD use and, in an alternative analysis, as cumulative dose. We estimated the magnitude of the association with conditional logistic regression analysis. Cumulative use of any AHD for more than 6 months was associated with an increased risk of glioma (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.04). After stratification for different groups of AHD, no significantly increased risk of glioma was found for any class of AHD. After excluding a latency period of 3 years before the date of diagnosis, no association was found. In conclusion, the use of AHD seems to be associated with an increased risk of glioma, but this is probably not causal.