Few data have been published on healthcare resource utilisation associated with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) in Europe. Using the PHARMO record linkage system, we identified incident adult patients with a primary hospital dischargediagnosis of breast cancer (BC) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 1998 to 2008. Patients who experienced FN were matched 1:2 non-FN reference patients. Of 1033 BC patients, 80 (8%) had FN and were matched with 160 reference patients; and of 486 NHL patients, 95 (20%) had FN and 89 were matched with 178 reference patients. Significantly more FN patients were hospitalised for any cause than reference patients: BC, 81% vs. 24% (OR 12.6; 95% CI 5.7-27.8); NHL, 82% vs. 44% (OR 6.7; 95% CI 3.3-13.9). Medianlength of all-cause hospitalisation stay was higher for FN patients: BC, 4.0 vs. 1.0 days; NHL, 8.5 vs. 1.8 days. The median (interquartile range) number of medication treatments was higher for FN patients: BC, 5.5 (4.0-7.5) vs. 2.0 (2.0-4.0); NHL, 8.0 (5.0-11.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0). In conclusion, FN in patients with BC or NHL had increased healthcare utilisation compared with non-FN patients; thus, efforts to reduce FN are warranted to reduce cost and improve outcomes.