OBJECTIVE: Women with diabetes have a high incidence and complication rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our aims were to compare current treatment strategies with respect to recurrence rates in women with diabetes with those without diabetesRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a Dutch registration database containing pharmacy dispensing data. A total of 10,366 women with diabetes (17.5% premenopausal) (aged < or =55 years) and 200,258 women without diabetes (68% premenopausal) who receiveda first course of trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, or norfloxacin between January 1999 and January 2006 were included. We compared short (< or or =5 days) with long (>5 days) prescriptions and norfloxacin with trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, andfosfomycin. A recurrence was defined as a second prescription for one of the above-mentioned agents or a first with amoxicillin (clavulanic acid), fluoroquinolones, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole between 6 and 30 days after inclusion. RESULTS: Premenopausal women with diabetes more often received a long (26.5 vs. 19.2%; P < 0.001) treatment with norfloxacin (10.7 vs. 6.2%; P < 0.001) but still had a higher recurrence rate (16.1 vs. 12.2%; P = 0.003) compared with those without diabetes. Similarly, postmenopausal women with diabetes more often received a longer (32.8 vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001) treatment with norfloxacin (15.2 vs. 12.7%; P < 0.001) but had a higher recurrence rate (19.1 vs. 16.4%; P < 0.001) compared with those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that patients with diabetes more often received longer and more potent initial treatment than patients without diabetes, pre- and postmenopausal women with diabetes more often had recurrences of their UTIs.