Chronic comorbidities in children with type 1 diabetes: a population-based cohort study

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities among children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare incidences with a group of children without diabetes. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Dutch PHARMO database (199-2010). PATIENTS: All patients (<19 years old) with T1D between 1999 and 2009 (T1D cohort) and a group of age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1-4) children without diabetes (reference cohort). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The incidence of nine common chronic comorbidities was assessed on the basis that they were treated pharmacologically and/or resulted in hospital admission. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to estimate the strength of the association between T1D and comorbidities, expressed as HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: A total of 915 patients with T1D and 3590 children in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 (SD 4.5) years) were included. T1D was associated with an increased risk (HR; 95% CI) of hospitalisation for any comorbidity (3.7; 2.5 to5.5), thyroid disease (14.2; 6.7 to 31.0), non-infectious enteritis and colitis (5.9; 3.0 to 11.5), cardiovascular disorders (3.1; 2.3 to 4.2), mental disorders (2.0; 1.4 to 3.1), epilepsy (2.0; 1.1 to 3.7) and (obstructive) pulmonary disease (1.5; 1.2 to 2.0). There was no significant difference in the incidences of other comorbidities (malignant disorders, anaemia and migraine) between the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal study showed that incidences of six chronic diseases were significantly higher in T1D children during the early years of developing this disease compared with the reference children.

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