Cardiovascular medication use and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a population-based cohort study

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-yr prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular disease before and after onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents (<19 yr) with1D (n = 925), defined as those who received at least two insulin prescriptions, and a four times larger reference cohort (n = 3591) with the same age and gender in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System (RLS) were studied in a retrospective cohort studybetween 1999 and 2009. The date of first insulin dispensing was selected as the index date. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of cardiovascular medication use was substantially higher in the T1D cohort before (2.2 vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001) and after (9.2 vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001) the index date. After the index date angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (2.0%) and statins (1.5%) were the most prevalent cardiovascular medications in the T1D cohort. The highest incidence rate of cardiovascular medication usewas observed in the first year after the index date [28.1 per 1000 person years (PY)]. Furthermore, three type 1 diabetic patients were hospitalized due to cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and heart failure (n = 1) and one child from the reference group was hospitalized due to cardiomyopathy in the 5 yr after the index date. CONCLUSIONS: Children with T1D were more likely to use cardiovascular medications in the years before and after the onset of diabetes. Our study emphasizes the importance of routine screeningtests and timely treatment of CVD risk factors in the pediatric population with diabetes.

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