The aim of the present study was to assess whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is associated with a decreased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a general, essentially white population. Dta were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases were defined as patients with a first hospital admission for CAP. For each case, up to four population controls were matched by age and sex. The study population comprised 1,108 patientswith a first hospital admission for CAP and 3,817 matched controls. After adjusting for several confounders, ACE inhibitor use was not associated with a decreased incidence of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.43). Additionally, no significant association was observed in patients with diabetes, respiratory diseases, heart failure, or patients with both of the last two conditions. Furthermore, adjustment of treatment effects on pneumonia risk using stratification on balancing score also showed no significant association between ACE inhibitor use and pneumonia risk within the different strata (overall adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.87-1.36). In contrast with previous findings in Asian populations, the current authors were not able to confirm the beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on pneumonia risk in a general, essentially white population.